If participation is to be fully successful then it is essential that senior managers recognize that resolving factors pertaining to employment, rather than individuals, are the most appropriate means of managing workplace stress, 34 and that they, and unions, should be engaged in the participatory process and be supportive of initiatives. Whilst specifically Workplace stress related to stress research, the focus was more concerned with community interventions development or public health than with workplace stress management, and so the papers were rejected. Studies that have applied highly collaborative approaches and have achieved demonstrable positive outcomes therefore provide an opportunity to identify features that may inform future research. Not all studies provided a demographic profile of the participants but where details were available many studies mostly involved women e. There is evidence that the Halbesleben et al. Self-reported surveys featured in 8 of the 11 studies. In some studies they were also used to develop solutions, and two Gold, ; Boivie et al.
Qualitative methods were prominent in the participatory process and included the use of interviews, focus groups and observations to explore the problem area, usually after the initial survey had been completed. Stress perception is highly subjective, and so the complexity of nursing practice may result in variation between nurses in their identification of sources of stress, especially when the workplace and roles of nurses are changing, as is currently occurring in the United Kingdom health service. Data collection methods will also have to capture evidence despite variable response rates due to staff turnover, and a wider application of qualitative methods used to effect in two of the studies; Gold, ; Boivie et al. Lack of reward and shiftworking may also now be displacing some of the other issues in order of ranking. Most studies were initiated either by a direct approach to the organization from an academic institution, or by the organization management contacting those institutions. Analysis A standardized approach to analysis is recommended for scoping reviews Davis et al.
With the systems approach, translation of research findings into actions is a significant barrier, and empowering staff and their participation is a key factor e. Self-report scales dominated evaluations 21 different scales; range per study but this strategy is challenged by impacts of organizational change and staff turnover on response rates.
Collaboration enables stakeholders with different kinds of expertise to solve problems together — perhaps also with input from external experts, such as occupational psychologists — and a feature was the amount of time that had to be committed in the early phase of the study to agree access, share expectations, agree a timeframe and to formally establish a commitment from the workforce.
Accordingly a non-systematic scoping review Anderson et revkew. Stress perception is highly subjective, and so the complexity of nursing practice may result in variation between nurses in their identification of sources of stress, especially when the workplace and roles of nurses are changing, as is currently occurring in the United Kingdom health service.
A recurring theme from this review is the need for the researcher and organization to invest considerable time, effort and resources to ensure fully participative collaboration between stakeholder representatives.
A total of 32 scales were used across the studies, either selected from those already available 18 different scales across all studies; see Table III or designed specifically for the purpose of the study three studieswhile three studies also referred to staff workpoace management records for data on absenteeism or turnover. This is also supported by a review by Kompier et al.
This might be expected in complex, multi-factorial situations, but it can complicate evaluation of the efficacy of the intervention e. However, Bond and Bunce identify that wider, far-reaching changes may have to be introduced over a longer term to have an impact.
Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review.
Individuals must be supported better, but this is hindered by lack of understanding of how sources of stress vary between different practice areas, lack of predictive power of assessment tools, and a lack of understanding of how personal and workplace factors interact. Study aims should not be over-ambitious. Evaluate organizational Board office nurxing the analysis, design and job requirements and evaluation of Two design workshops, one including users.
In all, 23 papers related to PAR outside the workplace. By Louise Hamelin Brabant.
Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review.
Features of the studies were collated according to: Aims and objectives 20 Participatory approaches to changing the workplace clearly must operate within the organizational context in which the interventions take place.
Four studies were not empirical per se, but were either discussion papers related to participation two studiesor were evaluation studies which did not involve an intervention two studies. Eight studies only included. These usually drew on the findings from earlier phases of the study and 6,1 informed the next stage, such as a wider consultation mcvicaar or implementation phase.
Two management sessions held on this Renewal of mission: The application of a democratic approach is a central principle of PAR, and in studies reporting issues related to employee participation, it is striking that a lack of engagement of managers, or distrust of management, was often apparent see Table II. An initial analysis of the value to this study was made by one of the authors PSand the decision ratified in discussion with the other two.
Not all studies provided a demographic profile of the participants but where details were available many studies mostly involved women e. Implement organizational changes Government office Quasi-experiment to test whether a people of whom 97 were Steering Committee PAR group: Individual-focused approaches continue to dominate UK strategy for stress management despite growing evidence that systems approaches, involving collaborative action to change the workplace environment, may offer a more beneficial means of addressing the impacts of job stress for both individuals and organizations.
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However, complex, collaborative, psychosocial interventions within the workplace, that is, collective actions aimed at improving the psychological well-being of individuals through changing aspects of the working environment, have been reported to have inconsistent outcomes Seymour and Grove,though some reviews have also suggested that when effective they are more likely to have a positive outcome than individual-focused ones Caulfield et al.
Common features of the research sites were evidence of past or continuing re-organization and re-structuring, and concern with excessive workplace stress. In terms of the scale of the project, the most extensive was a study in a manufacturing plant Heaney et al.
The study by Halbesleben et al.
Evaluation Studies were longitudinal in design, providing a before-after evaluation of the intervention. Self-reported surveys featured in 8 of the 11 studies. Formulation of action plans, and implementation plans, are common features, with dissemination of change throughout either part of the organization or 28 all of it, mediated by a Steering Group of stakeholders including managers.
Development of an action plan for sustaining the process of change Steering group: Data collection methods will also have to capture evidence despite variable response rates due to staff turnover, and a wider application of qualitative methods used to effect in two of the studies; Gold, ; Boivie et al.